Uses Of Automotive Equipment And Tools

Automotive equipment and tools are a very important part of the automobile industry. They can range from simple hand held devices to large structures that can even lift a heavy truck. The uses of these equipments in the world of automobiles cannot be undermined. For carrying out repairs, for changing a tire, for lubricating, for servicing, for charging up the battery, and for cleaning the vehicles, these equipments are very important.

Here Is A Brief Note On Some Of The Uses Of These Equipments.

Automobile Equipment Usage

* Automotive Lifts: Hydraulic lifts are very common in the industry and are used in showrooms, repair shops, and automobile factories. They generally come in the form of a platform fixed on a zigzag leg that can be raised or lowered as required. Heavy vehicles can be raised by the use of this equipment. These are how cars reach the first or second floor of a showroom or how the repairs to the lower part of vehicles are carried out in a mechanic’s shop. These lifts can be of different types like motorcycle lifts, runway lifts, drive on lifts, in-ground lifts, etc.

* Lubrication Equipments: As the name suggests, these are used to lubricate parts of the vehicle. There is a long list of lubrication equipments available and each is used for different lubrication purposes. Oil and grease reels, grease guns, oil drains, and oil and grease pumps are all examples of such commonly used equipment. Blacrank is a good brand when it comes to these equipments. Blacrank oil pumps are indisputable masters of the group.

* Compressors: Air compressors are used to do various works on automobiles. Generally, air compressors give additional pressure to drive in screws and give more power to tools like wrenches and nail guns. These are also used to remove dirt from the vehicle.

* Service Equipments: A vehicle needs to be serviced from time to time to ensure its proper running. This is where service equipments come in. These are battery chargers, fuel transfer device, brake fluid exchangers, coolant service equipment, tire changers, etc.

* Reels: These come in different shapes and sizes and are an important member of any automotive equipment list. Reels could be air reels, exhaust hose reels, grease reels, etc. Reels help to keep the pipes and hoses in place and also to extend its life. They can be easily reeled out to the required size and stored by reeling back.

* Jacks: Jacks are important not only in the shop but also for every vehicle owner. They enable the person to lift up the vehicle for the purpose of changing tires or doing some emergency repairs on the vehicle.

The list of automotive equipment is quite long and their uses quite large. Companies who sell such equipments also deal in car parts, thus making the store a one stop place for all things related to automobiles. Nowadays, there are thousands of online stores selling these equipments making them more accessible to all in need.

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Have You Seen a FBI Surveillance Van Parked in Your Street?

What do FBI surveillance vans look like? Such a vehicle may look like a flower delivery van, or a utility truck, or a black van that appears to be a stuffed bear delivery company. If the FBI is breaking the law and not using a marked van, the plate will begin with the letters SV, following a five-digit number which identifies its van number. But, in the real world the FBI can use any type of vehicle such as a RV and a Mini Cooper, to be more precise. These two vehicles can be loaded with cameras and dumped in your street for months for carrying out passive surveillance.This area is under cctv surveillance. Consequently, these vehicles are transformed into big cameras with wheels!

So, how can you identify these vehicles that are being use by the FBI for surveillance? You can usually tell if the FBI is equipping automobiles with cameras by how many are lined up at any residence. For example, if a home has four or five automobiles parked before its front lawn, this is a sure indication they are equipped with a superabundance of cameras. Another indicator: if you see a relatively new automobile parked in the street corner with a sale sign, the car might be fitted with cameras. Another indicator: do you see the same car models parking constantly around you? Do you see the same car models parked everywhere you go and around your neighborhood? If yes, this is yet another indication they are carrying cameras. Anything connected with a public service like school buses, post office, and UPS may be participating in covert surveillance operations by their vehicles being fitted with cameras. Here is yet one more indicator: automobiles that are positioned strategically for surveillance, often collect massive amount of dirt from immobility; they stand out like a sore thumb. If you see two very familiar car models parked directly across one another, this is probably a tactic of surveillance that resembles a checkpoint.

The FBI uses highly advanced surveillance radio equipment to spy on anyone. Though government surveillance is wrong and it should be clear why government surveillance of citizens is bad, some people are ignoring the vast negative consequences of big brother spying on you day and night. Government officials claim surveillance is needed to combat potential terrorist attacks, but that just a pretext, a lame excuse to justify and to keep the machinery of aggressive surveillance going strong.

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The Automobile: Profit and Status, Waste and Pollution

Originally used as basic transportation for home and business the automobile has become much more since the days of the Model T Ford. Today it supports a major industry as well as a wonderful convenience and better standard of living for so many. But the negative aspects of this great invention are now becoming more apparent.

Consider the mess that cars are making of our beautiful natural world as they spread fumes and noise into a once serene environment. And in their production and usage, cars chew up Mother Nature's resources at an increasing rate.

As in other industries the car companies' drive towards achieving greater profits has changed the way cars are produced, marketed and sold to consumers. The product that manufacturers want to sell most is not your basic transportation needs, and the advertising departments work feverishly to influence your choices. They have done a good marketing job over past decades as new owners proudly park impressive, shiny newer styled cars in their driveways, much like the TV commercials.

Automobiles are marketed aggressively for maximum corporate sales and profits as in other areas of merchandising. As long as companies need to increase their bottom line their efforts to sell products, good and sometimes bad, will be strenuous in the presence of strong competition.

This bigger, pricier car sales strategy is not new. In a dealer showroom way back in the 50's I had my mind set on a certain economy model but I was continually steered away from it. In fact the salesman refused to sell me the smaller model and I left. 35 years later and in a showroom helping my daughter with her concerns about choice and cost, the salesman turned to me and asked; "Who's buying this car, you or her?" As we headed to another dealer I remarked that he must have some personal problems, perhaps at home, maybe with his sales manager.

The automobile industry is a prime example of how shrewd marketing can sell maximum corporate benefits. Consider the car commercials on TV; They are not seriously trying to sell small and plain autos that use up the least resources. Most are for bigger and flashier styles, and with extra features that your friends will envy. Hybrids or electric cars may take the lead in future years but they will be made expensively and sold to generate maximum profit. Most by far will not be modest in design.

Along with continually remodeled styles the newest products can include frivolous gadgets and features that apparently are good selling points if marketed just right. And there has been a strategy where a model's size grows year-by-year until it's time to buy again; then your favorite model has grown in size and features and cost, and you gotta ante up considerably more than expected. Because what will your neighbors think if the choice is downsizing to a more practical purchase as the one you want to trade in?

Car commercials are amongst the noisiest on TV and can interfere with the family conversation if they are not muted. But the invasive annoying clamor attracts attention and results; It's how so much of advertising works. Rude and in-your-face works for them. In targeting the young and young at heart, commercials often sensationalize performance showing high speed maneuvers on city streets and highways. They are sending the wrong message considering the lives lost to excessive driving speeds. This is callous and harmful but it sells product. One has to wonder where the conscience of the corporate manager is hiding; Perhaps ethic is a detriment in rising to top managerial positions with some businesses.

The general outcome of many years of this massive marketing effort is that cars are now commonly purchased for superficial status, even though they may be too costly when excessive to the owner's budget or needs.

It's unfortunate that in the richer areas of the world consumers are so infatuated with these environmentally unfriendly, sleek, roomy, gadget featured, 'Look At Me' cars. But that's what they have been telling us to buy, most days of the year; and we are like sheep as we are herded towards industry showrooms.

We are being taken for a ride.

Marketing and branding are continually at work, and so the ongoing push to consume more steel, plastic, oil, and gas. But why would industry promote a basic product that represents modest, caring and friendly lifestyles when it would shrink business?

On TV during an earlier oil crisis a smiling spokesperson from the Automobile Association was defending why they aren't marketing more smaller cars. "People couldn't just sell their cars and buy smaller ones." The TV commercial which immediately followed the newsbyte was for a flashy full size SUV. Funny and grim.

Friendlier vehicles are coming off the design board as public interest in the environment rises. Can consumers resist the persuasions towards pizazz and extra extras that they could drive into the workplace parking lot? Can we practically expect them to change to economy autos? Granted, there is a case for increased comfort for longer commutes, but where is the practical limit?

Let's face it, this inefficient, costly and unnatural way to get around must be changed. It may be necessary to own a car to get to work, school and shopping; That's the way planning has designed our urban layouts, but that has turned out to be one big mistake.

Even if we are inclined to use public transportation it probably isn't there or not practical to use if the government has had other interests. And if it is available and convenient it probably still isn't what most of would consider; every one else is driving and peter has a new super spitter xyz !!

The public's desire for improving the way we live and treat the environment will change, but it will not be easy if we are continually confronted with massive persuasions to consume more. This necessary means of transportation needs a review of its design, marketing, and effects on society. The average person does not need luxury on wheels when spending only a few hours a week in the car. Nor does the car require fast speed and polluting power to drive within the speed limit. A description of the fuel efficient car should include: The smallest vehicle that will suit your transportation needs in reasonable comfort.

The automobile must take a less destructive and healthier place in our society, but can it happen? When the car industry hit a brick wall during the financial crisis the bailed out industry reorganized, redesigned and retooled for energy efficiency to some degree. Then came the familiar and glitzy, 'Show Me Off' ads. There is little advertising of small and simple transportation – so they can later proclaim that people did not want to buy them.

Why not review your automobile requirements to see if you can make some changes to more basic, downsized selection. And consider a reduction in usage. If public transit is available give it a try. I have been positively surprised at how convenient and relaxing transit riding can be. The ride is free time, and there are no expensive parking requirements when you arrive.

Businesses must continue to make money and so a drive into a brick wall may lie ahead unless politicians make a serious timed effort to tackle these problems for society and nature.

If the emerging economies follow the same pattern that we have, won't this world be one big ugly mess?

Albert Einstein once noted, "We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive." We had better start changing soon as we are running out of time.

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Automobile Dealers – Do You Really Have a Right to Refuse New Vehicles?

According to a recent article in the NY Times:

The Chrysler Group said Monday that it had not yet accounted for tens of thousands of cars in its inventory numbers, which are already considered high by industry standards. Chrysler said it had routinely excluded these vehicles, worth billions of dollars, from its tally of unsold cars and trucks because they had not yet been assigned to a specific dealer or ordered by a customer. (New York Times, October 24, 2006)

When I began learning about the automotive industry, dealers and manufacturers had a name for manufactured, but unordered vehicles. That name was: “sales bank.” The “sales bank” is a practice that the manufacturers allege they abandoned after being ravaged by the system during the oil crises of the 1970s.

By the early 1980s, when the dust settled, Automotive News was running stories like:

Ernest D’Agostino of Rhode Island filed suit, in the U.S. District Court against Chrysler Corporation, alleging Chrysler terminated his franchise because he refused to buy “gas guzzlers” — large cars with low gas mileage. A federal court jury found against Chrysler and Chrysler, in an unreported case, appealed. Chrysler agreed to drop its appeal and paid D’Agostino a settlement (Automotive News, October 1982); and

Fred Drendall, of Drendall Lincoln-Mercury/Pontiac sued Ford Motor Company alleging that when he attempted to cancel orders he was intimidated by Ford spokesmen and when he bowed to the pressure and ordered the vehicles, the high flooring costs forced him to refinance his dealership. He was eventually was terminated and suffered a heart attack. (Automotive News, December 1982).

Those were hard times in the car business.

Today, most Sales and Service Agreements have provisions such as the following:

2. (D) STOCKS. The dealer shall maintain stocks of current models of such lines or series of VEHICLES, of an assortment and in quantities as are in accordance with Company GUIDES therefor, or adequate to meet the Dealer’s share of current and anticipated demand for VEHICLES in the DEALER’S LOCALITY. The Dealer’s maintenance of VEHICLE stocks shall be subject to the Company’s filling the Dealer’s orders therefor. (Ford Motor Company, Mercury Sales and Service Agreement, Standard Provisions.)

Most states, however, have Dealer Day in Court Acts with provisions such as:

Art. 4413(36), SUBCHAPTER E. PROHIBITIONS. Sec 5.02. Manufacturers; Distributors; Representatives. (b) It is unlawful for any manufacturer, distributor, or representative to: (1) Require or attempt to require any dealer to order, accept delivery or pay anything of value, directly or indirectly, for any motor vehicle, appliance, part, accessory or any other commodity unless voluntarily ordered or contracted for by such dealer. (Texas Motor Vehicle Commission Code)

It shall be unlawful and a violation of this code for any manufacturer, manufacturer branch, distributor, or distributor branch licensed under this code to coerce or attempt to coerce any dealer in this state: (a) To order or accept delivery of any motor vehicle, part or accessory thereof, appliance, equipment or any other commodity not required by law which shall not have been voluntarily ordered by the dealer. (Section 11713.2 California Vehicle Code)

In addition to state laws, the National Dealer Day in Court Act also proscribes manufacturer and distributors from coercing a dealer into accepting “automobile, parts, accessories, or supplies which the dealer does not need, want or feel the market is able to absorb.” 1956 U.S.Code.Cong. & Admin.News, page 4603.

But, the law is always a two-edged sword and there is generally a fine line drawn between actions that are proper and actions that are improper. For example, it has long been settled that a dealer’s refusal to take all of the manufacturer’s line of vehicles, choosing instead to sell a competitor’s models, is grounds for termination. See, for example: Randy’s Studebaker Sales, Inc. v. Nissan Motor Corporation, 533 F.2d 510 (10th Cir. 1976), at 515.

Consequently, prior to deciding whether to accept or reject delivery of vehicles, a dealer should check with a competent automotive attorney, that is familiar with the laws in the jurisdiction where the vehicles are to be delivered, with respect to his or her particular circumstances.

Note: This article is not intended to provide legal advice, nor should it be interpreted as so doing.

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Celebration of the 100th Anniversary of the Model T Ford

The year 2008 marks the 100th anniversary of the production of the first Model T Ford. All around the world enthusiasts are hosting events to mark the introduction of a modest little car that transformed the automobile industry.

The historic importance of the Model T Ford stems from Henry Ford’s ambition to build an affordable automobile for the masses. In 1903 when Henry launched his company the automobile was typically built by hand. They were produced in small numbers and sold for a substantial price that only the wealthy could afford. These vehicles were typically fragile and unreliable and difficult to maintain and keep on the road. These early automobiles were generally considered to be the frivolous toys of the rich, not a viable form of transportation. Henry set out to build an automobile that was affordable and simple to maintain and repair. With the development and production of the Model T he achieved this remarkable feat. It was the first automobile to be produced in large numbers and sold at a modest price that most people could afford. It was also a simple design – light but sturdy and generally reliable and easy to keep running.

After 2 years working on the design of the Model T, the first production model was produced in Detroit in October 1908. Ford introduced the moving assembly line in 1913 and was able to produce the vehicle in large numbers. This was an important innovation and had enormous implications for the company and the automobile industry. Within five years of the introduction of the Model T, Ford was producing over 300,000 vehicles per year – a massive increase in production for the company which had built less than 9000 vehicles in 1906. Within a short period the Ford Motor Company became the dominant manufacturer of automobiles and as other manufacturers adopted these methods of mass production this industry became the dominant manufacturing industry in the USA. The contribution to the American economy was substantial and large numbers of working men flocked to the automobile factories to obtain work in this burgeoning industry.

The Model T was exported to a large number of countries around the world and Ford factories were established in many countries including Canada, England and Australia. The Model T Ford continued in production until 1927 and over 15 million were built. It is long been a favourite among vintage car enthusiasts and it has been estimated that there over 500,000 are still in existence around the world. The centennial celebrations for this famous car are being held throughout the year and include rallies, displays and special museum exhibitions.

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Motivation Tips

Motivation tips play a very important role in helping people boost their level of motivation. They are tested methods that have proved relatively useful over a period of time. These tips have been designed on a step-by-step basis to gradually increase a person's level of motivation. Various schools of thought have promoted different motivation tips based of a number of theories. These tips have greatly helped people achieve their goals and objectives.

People looking to motivate themselves or their team members should decide on their goals and get them down in writing. In order to get properly motivated people should know what their goals are. After getting their goals set, people should plan short-, medium-, and long-term goals. The goals chosen need to be practical and attainable. The goals set should not be so high that they prove to be out of reach. Goals should be written down and should be placed in a spot where they are clearly visible.

People should not let themselves or their team members' feelings get in the way of achieving their motivation. It is generally seen that when people mix up their feeling with their goals their motivation levels tend to drop. It is also seen that procrastination kills motivation. However, procrastination can be exceed with a clear and structured schedule. Whether people are working on their own or in a team, they should not let themselves be overwhelmed by the number of things they have to do. They should manage and complete each task before moving on to the next one.

Rewards and incentives play an extremely important role in motivating people. A reward or a pat on the back for a job well done helps in boosting an individual's or team's level of motivation. Similarly, a person or team trying to achieve an aim or objective should enjoy the task or job to be completed. Lack of enjoyment or fun may make the achievement of the objective a long and arduous task.

Motivation tips and strategies can also be obtained online through a number of websites providing information on the same.

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Trouble With Motivation?

One way I have found to keep my teams motivated is to take a step back from practice and let the athletes play a game. No matter what the age is, from tinies all the way up to senior age, they all love to play games once in a while at practice. The key is to let them play games that are age appropriate. I have found that the youngest age teams like to play games as simple as “Duck, Duck, Goose”, as for the older athletes, this is not the case. One of the most popular games that my teams have played is a game we call “Classes”. This game is where you split the team up into two different teams. You then explain the rules (you can really make up whatever you would like). As a coach, we would just give them a task to do and whoever completed it first would get a point. All of the athletes found this to be tons of fun and quite possibly their favorite game to play at practice, even though it is a simple concept. These are just a few ideas of games, nevertheless you can have your team play any game you or they want.

Another way I have found to keep a team motivated is to set goals that are to be met by a specific date. Something as simple as that will keep a team positive and allow them to have it set in their minds that they need to keep on working. At the gym I work at, we have the athletes all get in a circle and hold a piece of ribbon that connects them all as one. We then go down the line letting each athlete state their personal goal and their team goal. Once we get through everyone on the team each athlete cuts off a small piece of the ribbon and ties it to his or her shoe. That way they have a constant reminder of their goal and promise to the team.

Another great way to keep a team motivated is to get them out of the gym as a team. You can do something as simple as have a party at someone’s house. Many times my team would have pasta parties or pizza parties at someone’s house. We would each chip in for the costs and then bring in a dessert, drinks, snacks, appetizers, etc. This is always a fun way to get the team together outside of practice. It is very inexpensive and creates great memories. It also brings the team closer together because they are hanging out and having fun outside of practice.

An additional fun way to get the team out of the gym and motivated is to go to a team building activity together. Team building activities can be almost anything; a great one is obstacle courses. As a team, we went to an outdoor facility together (called Iron Oaks). There we did fun activities that kept us all thinking. Alongside of it keeping us thinking, it assured that we all worked together to accomplish a goal. The way that this keeps a team motivated is because it is keeping a team working together to accomplish a goal, just as a team needs to keep working together to push through competitions.

Another key tool to keep a team motivated is simple, communication. Keep communicating with your athletes. Talk to them about things that are going on in their lives, if they are having troubles outside of the sport, then chances are they will take the problems with them into the gym. This causes for distractions, and everyone in cheerleading knows it is really hard to push through practice when you have other things on your mind.

Be sure to give your team the right tools to stay motivated. Make sure they have the right equipment to succeed, whether it is the right type of shoe or clothing to the right type of mats or trampolines. This will help them train hard and correctly. Athletes will not be able to advance their skills if they do not have the correct tools to keep working and advancing.

The most important way to keep a team motivated is to lead by example. Be a good example to your team, whether you are a coach, athlete, parent, or a gym owner. Setting a good example will cause the team to look up to you and want to work just as hard as you are. If you are a hard worker and positive about things, then your team will look toward you for guidance and want to learn from you.

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Self-Motivation – Surprises Are Part of Our Lives

INTRODUCTION:

Self-Motivation is a very important activity in our day to day life as we don’t know what surprise will come and at what time.

We have to motivate ourselves to ensure that the surprise is being handled appropriately and WE SHOULD NEVER GIVE UP. Even though the surprises are common to everyone lives and every one motivate them to handle their surprises and take it forward.

We have to motivate ourselves to ensure that the surprise is being handled efficiently and functionally. We attempt through our article, to share ancient ideas and techniques to walk you through this journey of life surprises.

Hence, we have to understand that some of the important surprises & techniques to self-motivate in handling the surprises.

GENERAL SURPRISES:

1) Financial Surprises: Generally, the companies or individuals will have a budget, unfortunately, the days may not go with the same budget planning. There may be a surprise in increase or decrease of the budget. This in turn, disturbs the financials. For projects in a company, the financial surprises can be corrected through appropriate contracts & claims management and for individuals it can be corrected through self-motivation techniques.

2) Health Surprises: Health issues may come up at any time which we cannot anticipate. We always should maintain discipline in our food habits, do daily exercises and drink appropriate water, which may avoid the health surprises.

SELF-MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES:

Any surprise or any issue can be corrected through self-motivation techniques as mentioned below:

1) Firstly, we should analyze in depth about the surprise or the issue. We have to make a note point on WHAT, HOW & WHY. By answering these simple three words we can understand the reason for the surprise or the issue.

a. WHAT: What happened?

b. HOW: How it happened? How it went wrong.

c. WHY: Why this happened? What are the corrections?

2) Secondly, doing meditation and thinking on the solution for the surprise or the issue. In this way, we can get the solution and go forward.

3) Once we answer the What, How & Why, and for corrections, we should do meditation by taking a deep breath and concentrating on the breath and thinking on the corrections.

4) We have to continue the meditation till we find out the solution. Depending on the surprise, sometimes, we will find the solution in 2 – 3 times and sometimes it may take days.

5) We should NEVER GIVE UP and we should continue the meditation till we get the solution and certainly we will get the solution through meditation for any issue/surprise/problem.

6) After having a solution, we have to make a clear roadmap for solving the surprise or issue with a contingency plan.

7) Finally, we should always follow another 3-word principle, Plan, Check and Act, this 3-word principle can ensure to resolve the surprise or issue.

CONCLUSION:

1) Generally, we face several problems in our day to day activities and we get panic or scared on an occurrence of such problems.

2) If we follow the techniques as mentioned above without getting panic or getting scared, we can easily resolve such problems by finding solutions and we can go forward in our lives and achieve success.

3) This article is to support the reader in addressing their problems/issues/surprises in an appropriate manner without getting panic or getting scared.

4) We request you to share this article after going through as this may help your friends to overcome their problems/issues/surprises.

5) All views or opinions or statements given in this Article are personal, which are in our knowledge/ information and do not signify any professional advice.

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Hypothalamus – Role in Motivation and Behaviour

“Behaviour is ultimately the product of the brain, the most mysterious organ of them all.” Ian Tattersall (from Becoming Human.Evolution and Human Uniqueness, 1998)

The question of why we are motivated to certain behaviours is perhaps one of the most fundamental in Psychology. Since Pavlov described conditioning in dogs in his famous 1927 paper, scientists have pondered the origins of motivations that drive us to action. For most of the early twentieth century, behaviourists like Watson & Skinner sought to explain behaviour in terms of external physical stimuli, suggesting that learned responses, hedonic reward and reinforcement were motives to elicit a particular behaviour. However, this does not tell the whole story. In the last few decades, the school of cognitive psychology has focused on additional mechanisms of motivation: our desires according to social and cultural factors having an influence on behaviour. Furthermore, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have allowed scientists an insight into the vast complexities and modular nature of specific brain regions. This research has shown that behaviours necessary for survival also have an inherent biological basis.

The biological trigger for inherent behaviours such as eating, drinking and temperature control can be traced to the hypothalamus, an area of the diencephalon. This article will explore the hypothalamic role in such motivated behaviours. It is important to note that a motivated behaviour resulting from internal hypothalamic stimuli is only one aspect of what is a complex and integrated response.

The hypothalamus links the autonomic nervous system to the endocrine system and serves many vital functions. It is the homeostatic ‘control centre’ of the body, maintaining a balanced internal environment by having specific regulatory areas for body temperature, body weight, osmotic balance and blood pressure. It can be categorised as having three main outputs: the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system and motivated behavioural response. The central role of the hypothalamus in motivated behaviour was proposed as early as 1954 by Eliot Stellar who suggested that “the amount of motivated behaviour is a direct function of the amount of activity in certain excitatory centres of the hypothalamus” (p6). This postulation has inspired a wealth of subsequent research.

Much of this research has been in the field of thermoregulation. The body’s ability to maintain a steady internal environment is of critical importance for survivalas many crucialbiochemical reactions will only function within a narrow temperature range. In 1961, Nakayama et al discovered thermosensitive neurons in the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Subsequent research showed that stimulation of the hypothalamic region initiated humoral and visceromotor responses such as panting, shivering, sweating, vasodilation and vasoconstriction. However, somatic motor responses are also initiated by the lateral hypothalamus. It is much more effective to move around, rub your hands together or put on extra clothes if you are feeling cold. Similarly, if you are too warm you might remove some clothing or fan yourself to cool down. These motivated behaviours demonstrate that in contrast to a fixed stimulus response, motivated behaviour stimulated by the hypothalamus has a variable relationship between input and output. This interaction with our external environment may be a ‘choice’, however it is clear that the motivation to make these choices has a biological basis.

The mechanics of thermoregulation can be explained by what is sometimes referred to as ‘drive states’. This is essentially a feedback loop that is initiated by an internal stimulus which requires an external response. Kendal (2000) defines drive states as “characterised by tension and discomfort due to a physiological need followed by relief when the need is satisfied”. The process begins with the input. Temperature changes are picked up from peripheral surroundings by thermoreceptive neurons throughout body which sense both warmth and cold separately. An electrical signal (the input) is then sent to the brain. Any divergence from what is known as the ‘set point’ – in this case a temperature of approx 37° – will then be identified as an ‘error signal’ by interoceptive neurons in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus. Armed with these measurements and temperature signals being relayed from the blood, the hypothalamus then launches an appropriate error response. This includes motivating behaviour to make a physical adjustment, e.g. to move around or remove surplus clothing in an attempt to control your temperature.

This type of feedback system in the body is common. Other systems necessary for survival such as regulation of blood salt and water levels are regulated in a similar way. However, the processes that motivate us to eat is much more complex.

Humans have evolved an intricate physiological system to regulate food intake which encompasses a myriad of organs, hormones and bodily systems. Furthermore, a wealth of experimental research supports the idea that the hypothalamus plays a key role in this energy homeostasis by triggering feeding behaviours. Controlling energy balance is of crucial importance and eating is primarily to maintain fat stores in the event of food shortage. If fat cell reserves in the body are low, they release a hormone called leptin which is detected as an error signal by the periventricular region of the hypothalamus. This then stimulates the lateral hypothalamus to initiate the error response. In this case, we start to feel hungry which in turns initates the somatic motor response by motivating us to eat.

Since the hypothalamus also controls metabolic rate by monitoring blood sugar levels, in theory we seem to have a similar feedback loop to temperature control. However in practice this is not a reality. The main difficulty in maintaining energy homeostasis is that motivation does not rise solely from internal biological influences. Cultural and social factors also play an important part in motivation about when, what and how often to eat. In western culture, social pressures to be thin can override the need to eat and in extreme cases like anorexia the drive state becomes reversed. The motivation is no longer to eat because they are hungry but is instead not to eat so they do feel hungry. This corruption of the reward system is well documented and is associated with delusions of body image, a concept which is also linked to the hypothalamus and the parietal lobe. Problems can also occur if an individual receives over stimulation to eat. The prevalence of obesity in today’s society is testament to this fact.

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Define Motivation

Motivation can be defined in a number of ways. Generally, it is defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. In other words, motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. It is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his/her personality. There are different types of motivation such as achievement motivation, affiliation motivation, competence motivation, power motivation, and attitude motivation.

Motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. Arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior and direction of behavior is concerned with what directs behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained.

Various studies have been conducted to understand the different motives that drive a person to success. Motives are categorized into three: homeostatic motives, nonhomeostatic motives, and learned or social motives. Almost all the motives belong to one or more of these three groups.

Motives such as thirst, hunger, respiration, and excretion are included in homeostatic motives. Nonhomeostatic motives include required activities such as seeking shelter and curiosity about the environment. Curiosity, a desire for novelty, power, achievement, social affiliation, and approval are considered as learned motives or social motives.

Motivation is essential to be successful in any endeavor you undertake. It can be positive or negative, subtle or obvious, tangible or intangible. It is very important in workplaces as it plays a key role in the effective performance of employees. In industry, managers play a significant role in employee motivation. They use different motivation techniques to improve productivity, thereby promoting cooperation between employees and employers.

Learning is somewhat interrelated to motivation. In education, instructors also use motivation techniques in order to motivate the students to learn. It is essential to increase student motivation as it can make a student more competent. Also, motivation encourages self confidence and problem-solving skills.

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